Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no more possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I’ve to say now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it’s to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is provided by the general public or the state, they’ve much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown using their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.