# 10 Academic Activities to Get You Thru The Holidays – Ideas for Upper Elementary

10 Academic Activities to Get You Thru the Holidays – Tanya Yero Teaching Holiday Activities

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I’ve to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those that cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is provided by people or their state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are surviving in, dating back once again to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The next group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

## Leave a Reply