# 10 KS2 MATHS MASTERY INVESTIGATIONS

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to state now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It is extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is provided by people or the state, they have much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re residing in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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