Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is supplied by the general public or the state, they have much time to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other may be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.