Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those that deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is provided by people or the state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.