2020 CHAIN ​​BREAKING COLOR POSTER | Math

2020 CHAIN ​​BREAKING COLOR POSTER

2020 CHAIN ​​BREAKING COLOR POSTER

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that people who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. This is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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