MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe those that handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are responsible for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to offer details about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get with their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another may be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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