2nd Grade Math Journals for Interactive Notebooks Common Core Aligned | Math

2nd Grade Math Journals for Interactive Notebooks Common Core Aligned

2nd Grade Math Journals for Interactive Notebooks Common Core Aligned

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no further possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that people who cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are in charge of these works, should come to take the required measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is given by people or their state, they have much time to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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