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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that those that deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is given by the public or their state, they’ve much time for you to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re surviving in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to offer information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. That is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.