5 Math Games Every Classroom Needs to Play | Math

5 Math Games Every Classroom Needs to Play

5 Math Games Every Classroom Needs to Play

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that people who deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is supplied by the public or their state, they’ve much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re residing in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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