“Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater.” ~ Albert Einstein (Download a FREE one page poster for this quote on: www.uniqueteachin…)
Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it’s to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the required measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is supplied by the public or the state, they have much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to give information regarding the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to show the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.