Math

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is given by the general public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive using their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the volume and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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