Math

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that people who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should arrived at take the required measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is supplied by the general public or the state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown making use of their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which can be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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