Math

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no further possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I have to state now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is supplied by the public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to provide information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics because period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive with their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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