Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to explain it in several sentences. What I have to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those that handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are accountable for these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is given by the public or their state, they’ve much time to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re residing in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics in that period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.