MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no further possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that those who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are in charge of these works, should come to take the required measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is supplied by the public or their state, they have much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re surviving in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to provide information regarding the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given using their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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