Math

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are responsible for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is given by the general public or the state, they have much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one is the calculation of the quantity and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The next group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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