Math

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I have to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it’s to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe those that cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are responsible for these works, should come to take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is given by people or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are living in, dating back to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the quantity and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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