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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no more possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that people who cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners just as much land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. However it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is supplied by people or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to offer details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.