Alex O'Connor on Instagram: "Making math engaging and fun at the middle school level can be challenging. These fraction and decimal board games do exactly that. They…" | Math

# Alex O’Connor on Instagram: “Making math engaging and fun at the middle school level can be challenging. These fraction and decimal board games do exactly that. They…”

Making math engaging and fun at the middle school level can be challenging. These fraction and decimal board games do exactly that. They…

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of this class is supplied by the public or the state, they’ve much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are residing in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to give information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the amount and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.