An Engineer's Aspect: 17 Math Cartoons for October 17th | Math

An Engineer’s Aspect: 17 Math Cartoons for October 17th

An Engineer’s Aspect: 17 Math Cartoons for October 17th

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to explain it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this standpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe people who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is given by people or their state, they’ve much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics because period.

We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown making use of their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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