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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this viewpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is provided by the public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re residing in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics in that period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one could be the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.