Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, by the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is given by the general public or their state, they have much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is considered the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.