Boot Camp | Math

Boot Camp

Boot Camps are differentiated, leveled math skill practice assignments that require students show mastery on one problem difficulty before moving on to the next. As students pass mastery tests, they are promoted in rank. Ideal as homework or an in-class workshop.

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who handle mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are accountable for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and give the landowners as much land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is supplied by people or their state, they’ve much time to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics in that period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one could be the calculation of the quantity and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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