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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this point of view, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those that cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is supplied by the general public or the state, they have much time to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wished to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics because period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two significant reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get with their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one could be the calculation of the amount and area of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the person who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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