Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this standpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods due to the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is given by people or their state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are residing in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental options that come with mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The very first of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made with their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the amount and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which can be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.