Counting and Number Matching with Paper Cups #fuc Counting and number matching w… | Math

# Counting and Number Matching with Paper Cups #fuc Counting and number matching w…

Counting and Number Matching with Paper Cups #fuc Counting and number matching with paper cups. A fun math activity for preschool.

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no further possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science may be the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is provided by the general public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back to early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to each other with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.