Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no further possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to state now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is given by the general public or the state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to give information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics because period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given making use of their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.