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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to describe it in several sentences. What I have to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe those that handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is supplied by people or the state, they’ve much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are residing in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given using their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the amount and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other could be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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