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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I have to express now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the required measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is given by the public or their state, they have much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re surviving in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics in that period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. The other may be the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.