Use Bulletin Boards to Promote Challenge– One of the biggest challenges for teaching mathematics in the classroom is attending to the multitude of skills and process that must be emphasized each year. One way to utilize the extra minutes that…
Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to explain it in a few sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science could be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those that handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is supplied by people or the state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.