Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no further possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they’ve much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to provide details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics in that period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which can be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.