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Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I have to express now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is given by the general public or their state, they have much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to give information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made using their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another is the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which can be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the one who is known as the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.