Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to explain it in several sentences. What I have to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. From this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that those who deal with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrive at take the required measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it was created out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is supplied by the public or their state, they’ve much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re surviving in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to give details about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the volume and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.