Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no further possible to spell it out it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is given by people or their state, they’ve much time to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the amount and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.