Fast Math Tricks – How to multiply 2 digit numbers up to 100 – the fast way! – YouTube
Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no further possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this point of view, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind is the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science is the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods due to the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it came to be out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood of the class is provided by the public or the state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re residing in, dating back to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to give details about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of those papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. They are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the initial philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The second group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.