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Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to spell it out it in a few sentences. What I have to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t genuinely believe that people who deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is provided by the general public or the state, they have much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.These two views may be true; priests wished to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the amount and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the very first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.