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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I have to express now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science may be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It is not possible to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, that are responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion about the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is provided by the general public or their state, they’ve much time for you to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests desired to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to offer details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential top features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. They’re the sort of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one is the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a very bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to show the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The next group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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