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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined as the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no longer possible to describe it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it being an art. Out of this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; When it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those that deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it was born out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is given by people or their state, they have much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they found out how exactly to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information regarding the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics because period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two significant reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of these fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The very first of the papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions receive making use of their solutions. They’re the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This really is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one may be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. One other could be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted because the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date which was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the current shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, which is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As could be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.