Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it is no further possible to explain it in several sentences. What I have to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science is the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who cope with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s extremely hard to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are accountable for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. However it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood with this class is provided by people or the state, they have much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this manner led to the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are residing in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the very first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the quantity and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. The other is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from this information, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.