Geometric Wallpaper – Crisscross by elvelyckan – Plus Sign Simplicity Math Symbol Modern Nursery Wallpaper Roll by Spoonflower | Math

Geometric Wallpaper – Crisscross by elvelyckan – Plus Sign Simplicity Math Symbol Modern Nursery Wallpaper Roll by Spoonflower

Geometric Wallpaper – Crisscross by elvelyckan – Plus Sign Simplicity Math Symbol Modern Nursery W

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no longer possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I’ve to say now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is really a language. If the objective of science could be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to have the ability to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not centered on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re accountable for these works, should come to take the required measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is provided by the general public or the state, they have much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the work of the geometric, or they found out just how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re living in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to offer information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of ​​some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the volume and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, which is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the very first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The second group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is just a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred with a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As can be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.

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