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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no longer possible to spell it out it in several sentences. What I’ve to express now will soon be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this point of view, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the goal of science is the universe; If it is to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to browse the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It absolutely was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that are not based on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods due to the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are responsible for these works, should come to take the required measurements and supply the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is given by people or the state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views might be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and this way generated the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are living in, dating back once again to the early 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will endeavour to offer information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics because period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two major causes for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the term papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for instance sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, with the exception of the two. As for the other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another is the question of finding the amount of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 may be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the person who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.