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Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it’s no more possible to describe it in several sentences. What I have to express now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. From this standpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; If it’s to know, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we must know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that deal with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the first time, BC. It absolutely was utilized by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, by the end of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re in charge of these works, should arrived at take the mandatory measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is provided by people or their state, they have much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that point, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It will cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, referred to as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we are surviving in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics in that period.
We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two main reasons for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, on average 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the word papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get using their solutions. They’re the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. As for the other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut by a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the region of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s will be the years when the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the size of the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.