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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no further possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to say now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them is the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also notice it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that those who handle mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The phrase meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It is difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We could say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are in charge of these works, should arrived at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners just as much land as they had in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of those measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was born out from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the sole intellectual class of countries such as Egypt was the priest class. Considering that the livelihood with this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for instance triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The initial period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The next period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we’re living in, dating back to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to offer details about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The next reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of those fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, normally 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the phrase papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given using their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of ​​some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is just a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one may be the calculation of the quantity and part of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. Another is the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted whilst the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he visited Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. During Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which will be not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Furthermore, Tales is the one who is considered the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a school and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The next group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is founded on number cult. According for them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for instance 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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