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MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to state now will undoubtedly be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them is the depth of the task done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science may be the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t think that those that cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry into the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what must be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words which means that geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s extremely hard to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river each year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who are responsible for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge as a result of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. But it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation brought on by Nile floods. At that time, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of the class is given by people or the state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just as others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The second period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time we’re residing in, dating back to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to offer information regarding the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the essential options that come with mathematics because period.

We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of these fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to have been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of these papyrus is really a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are shown with their solutions. They are the sort of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can also be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, aside from the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them could be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Those two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years when the Persians began to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the sole rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the size of the current shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, which is not centered on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, went along to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to teach the folks he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior people of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a strong crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.

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