# Kindergarten Addition Activity – Planning Playtime

Kindergarten Addition Activity

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved as time passes; it’s no further possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. A large proportion of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this perspective, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters to them could be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is a language. If the goal of science could be the universe; If it’s to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must manage to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is just a tool because of its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe people who cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for initially, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. If we take documents that aren’t centered on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. You may already know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suitable for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, that are responsible for these works, should arrived at take the required measurements and supply the landowners just as much land as they’d in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. Another opinion about the birth of mathematics is the main one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics was created in Egypt. But it came to be from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. In those days, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood with this class is supplied by the general public or their state, they have much time and energy to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered how exactly to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this manner resulted in the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period will undoubtedly be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re living in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics because period, contributing mathematicians, the place of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics in that period.

We will start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You can find two major causes for this. The foremost is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the last of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus is the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to publish text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are both of these papyri. The initial of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to show math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are given with their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the region of some geometric shapes. This is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and section of the surface of the sphere part cut by way of a plane. The other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the number of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years when the Persians started to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that was accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. Two different people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the truly amazing pyramid by measuring along the shadow of the great pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to show what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that is not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the initial philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after time for Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According in their mind, everything can be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the initial major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led with a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for many years under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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