Kindergarten Interactive Math Journal – Number formation, Number sense, 10 frame… | Math

# Kindergarten Interactive Math Journal – Number formation, Number sense, 10 frame…

Kindergarten Interactive Math Journal – Number formation, Number sense, 10 frames, counting, cardinality, & MORE!

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is one of the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined because the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no more possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I have to state now is likely to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In taking care of, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it being an art. Using this perspective, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another apart from mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind could be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the strategy used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the objective of science may be the universe; When it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we ought to be able to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also view it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not think that those who cope with mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for initially, BC. It was employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, rather than the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages ​​were used.

It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents which are not based on archaeological findings that need interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say that it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not suited to agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that provides life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are incredibly valuable. However, at the end of the floods brought on by the Nile river annually, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each and every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are in charge of these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of the measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). Based on Aristotle, mathematics came to be in Egypt. Nonetheless it was born from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the need for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is given by people or their state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To help keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests desired to simplify the work of the geometric, or they learned just how to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way generated the birth of geometry.

We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It’ll cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The 3rd term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, referred to as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back to early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, could be the fifth period. I will attempt to give information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the basic top features of mathematics for the reason that period.

We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason is the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of these fires happened through the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text in place of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages ​​such as “Paper”, “papier” are based on the word papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky because of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sourced elements of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The very first of these papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus called the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy compiled by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to show math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to instruct operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. They are the kind of questions people can encounter in everyday life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of ​​some geometric shapes. This is more or less our 8th grade mathematics. The second papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the sort of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them is the calculation of the quantity and section of ​​the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other may be the question of finding the quantity of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted as the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of ​​the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained as of this level for 2000 years and has not made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are considered to be the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he visited Egypt, stayed there for a while and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the truly amazing pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After time for Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to show what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that is not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was born on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians during the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a school and tried to show the people he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they’re connected together with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything can be reduced to numbers; It comes with an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… are the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the best sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a heavy crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Most of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after many years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As can be understood from these records, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the foundation of Greek mathematics.