Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined while the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no longer possible to describe it in a couple of sentences. What I’ve to state now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Out of this standpoint, the truth that a work done, a developed theory works in one of the ways or another other than mathematics does not concern them much. What matters for them may be the depth of the task done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it is to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we should be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics is definitely an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is inside our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is now far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not genuinely believe that those that handle mathematics are far more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The term mathematics, for the first time, BC. It had been employed by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It had been in the 380s. The term meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that is, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equal to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s difficult to say anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t based on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Based on Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics were only available in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suited to agriculture; It is the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are extremely valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Because the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who are accountable for these works, should come to take the necessary measurements and give the landowners the maximum amount of land as they’d in the last year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. An additional opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it came to be out of the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for instance Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of the class is supplied by the public or their state, they’ve much time for you to share with intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both these views might be true; priests wished to simplify the task of the geometric, or they discovered just how to calculate the areas of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to test that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is likely to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The next term, M.S. It’ll cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we are residing in, dating back once again to the first 1900s, called the age of modern mathematics, would be the fifth period. I will attempt to give information regarding the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the essential features of mathematics for the reason that period.
We will start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The 2nd reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of those fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, an average of 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to create text instead of paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are derived from the term papyrus. The average lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky as a result of moisture, heat and similar reasons. To date, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key resources of our knowledge of Egyptian mathematics are these two papyri. The first of those papyrus is a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus known as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a guide written to teach math. In the introduction part, after having a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get with their solutions. These are the type of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The next papyrus, known as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is really a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the type of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. When it comes to other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the amount and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. One other could be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted since the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians realized that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It’s understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only real rulers of the entire middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, per year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the start of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started earlier than this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known that he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the fantastic pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the existing shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming an organization around him to instruct what he learned. It is assumed that abstract proof based on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. Additionally, Tales is the person who is known as the first philosopher in human history. He was created on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for some time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians through the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to instruct individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to each other with oath. The second group consists of students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According to them, everything may be reduced to numbers; It posseses an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as for example 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem called the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the proper sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.