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Mathematics is one of many oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined since the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved over time; it is no more possible to describe it in a few sentences. What I have to say now will be words that emphasize its various aspects, as opposed to describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is an art form like painting and music. The vast majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this perspective, the fact that a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters for them may be the depth of the work done, the novelty of the methods used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it’s to understand, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must have the ability to read the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. In order to understand and interpret them, we have to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.
Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is only a tool for the user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is within our knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics is currently far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I don’t believe that those who cope with mathematics are more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics than the blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The word mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It absolutely was used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry to the written literature, with Plato BC. It was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what must be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, as opposed to the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, comparable to it in geometry or old languages were used.
It’s not possible to express anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that aren’t predicated on archaeological findings that require interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We can say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In accordance with Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. As you know, 97% of the Egyptian lands aren’t suitable for agriculture; It is the 3% portion that offers life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the conclusion of the floods brought on by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Considering that the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after each flood, the “geometricists” of the state, who’re responsible for these works, should arrive at take the mandatory measurements and provide the landowners the maximum amount of land as they had in the previous year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of those measurements and calculations. A second opinion concerning the birth of mathematics is usually the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. Nonetheless it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the requirement for measurement-calculation caused by Nile floods. During those times, the only real intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Since the livelihood of this class is provided by the public or their state, they’ve much time and energy to give to intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of that time, just like others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the task of the geometric, or they learned how exactly to calculate the regions of some geometric shapes such as for example triangular and trapezoidal to check on that the distribution was fair, and in this way led to the birth of geometry.
We shall divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The very first period will soon be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover an amount of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover an amount of 1000 years, called the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the beginning of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, called the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The period we’re living in, dating back again to the early 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will try to provide information about the development of mathematics for the reason that period, contributing mathematicians, the spot of mathematics in social life and the fundamental top features of mathematics in that period.
We shall start the first semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. There are two major causes for this. The first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason could be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the final of the fires happened throughout the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus may be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text rather than paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The typical lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it’s flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Up to now, two papyrus linked to mathematics appear to own been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The main sources of our familiarity with Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The initial of those papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You’re a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is just a copy written by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to instruct math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to teach operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions are made making use of their solutions. These are the sort of questions people can encounter in lifestyle, such as sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the location of some geometric shapes. This really is pretty much our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, called the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, can be BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one could be the calculation of the volume and part of the surface of the sphere part cut with a plane. Another may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut with a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. These two questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the area of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found the amount of pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained at this level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.
B.C. 600s are the years once the Persians started to dominate the center east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, annually later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 is the date that was accepted as the beginning of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of a really bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started prior to when this period. A couple, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as the father of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is famous he went along to Egypt, stayed there for a time and learned geometry in Egypt. Whilst in Egypt, it’s described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to the length of the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming a group around him to instruct what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof centered on reasoning, that will be not predicated on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a while, visited Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken up to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it is known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to teach individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the city of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior individuals of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected to one another with oath. The 2nd group includes students attending school. Pythagoras school is based on number cult. According in their mind, everything may be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is really a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… will be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem known as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of the right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the very first major crisis of mathematics. Lots of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by way of a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a few years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for quite some time under this or that name. As may be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the basis of Greek mathematics.