# Learning tricks for primary school

Magic! For 1×1 there is a magic magic trick. Your child will love him … and maybe a little more math?

MATHEMATIC HISTORY

Mathematics is among the oldest sciences in human history. In ancient times, Mathematics was defined whilst the science of numbers and shapes. Mathematics, like other branches of science, has evolved with time; it’s no further possible to explain it in a couple of sentences. What I have to say now is going to be words that emphasize its various aspects, rather than describe mathematics. In one aspect, mathematics is a skill like painting and music. The great majority of mathematicians perform it as an art. Using this viewpoint, the fact a work done, a developed theory works in one way or another besides mathematics doesn’t concern them much. What matters in their mind may be the depth of the job done, the novelty of the techniques used, the aesthetic value and the usefulness of mathematics in itself. Mathematics, in another aspect, is just a language. If the purpose of science is the universe; If it is to comprehend, rule and direct everything in the universe, we must be able to see the book of nature. The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, with the highly cited words of Galile; its letters are shapes of geometry. To be able to understand and interpret them, we need to know the language of mathematics. In another aspect, mathematics can be an intellectual game like chess.

Some mathematicians also see it as a game. Mathematics is merely a tool for its user. After entering it, we understand and perceive what mathematics is in your knowledge and in the direction of our interest. Mathematics has become far beyond the dimensions any human can rule. Therefore, I do not believe that people who deal with mathematics tend to be more than we understand and perceive it from mathematics compared to blind touched net understands and perceives the elephant. The phrase mathematics, for the very first time, BC. It had been used by the members of the Pythagorean school in the 550s. His entry in to the written literature, with Plato BC. It absolutely was in the 380s. The word meaning is “what needs to be learned”, that’s, information. In the years before these dates, instead of the word mathematics, words that mean geometry, equivalent to it in geometry or old languages were used.

It’s not possible to state anything definite about where and how mathematics started. When we take documents that are not predicated on archaeological findings that want interpretation, but open enough to require interpretation, We are able to say so it started between 3000 and 2000 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. According to Heredotus (485-415 BC), mathematics started in Egypt. Everbody knows, 97% of the Egyptian lands are not ideal for agriculture; It’s the 3% portion that gives life to Egypt and forms the Nile delta. Therefore, these lands are really valuable. However, at the end of the floods caused by the Nile river every year, the boundaries of the landowners’lands become obscure. Since the landowners also pay taxes in proportion to the land they own, after every flood, the “geometricists” of their state, who’re accountable for these works, should arrive at take the necessary measurements and give the landowners as much land as they had in the earlier year. Herodotus says that geometry has begun to emerge consequently of these measurements and calculations. A second opinion in regards to the birth of mathematics is the one put forward by Aristotle (384-322 BC). In accordance with Aristotle, mathematics was born in Egypt. But it was created from the boredom of clergymen and priests, not the necessity for measurement-calculation due to Nile floods. During those times, the only intellectual class of countries such as for example Egypt was the priest class. Because the livelihood of this class is provided by the public or their state, they’ve much time to give intellectual pursuits. To keep them busy, they invented geometry and arithmetic, the mathematics of the period, in the same way others invented games like chess, bridge, and go&hellip ;.Both of these views may be true; priests wanted to simplify the job of the geometric, or they learned how to calculate the aspects of some geometric shapes such as triangular and trapezoidal to check that the distribution was fair, and in this way resulted in the birth of geometry.

We will divide the written history of mathematics into five periods. The first period is going to be Egypt and Mesopotamia; this period BC In 2000s BC. It’ll cover a period of 1500-2000 years between 500s. The 2nd period, BC. 500-M.S. It will cover a period of 1000 years, known as the Greek Mathematics period, between 500 years. The third term, M.S. It will cover a 1200-year period from the 500’s until the start of calculus and will mainly cover European mathematics in the Hind, Islam and Renaissance era. The fourth semester will cover the classical mathematics era, known as the golden age of mathematics, dating from 1700-1900. The time scale we are living in, dating back to the first 1900s, called age modern mathematics, will be the fifth period. I will attempt to provide information about the development of mathematics in that period, contributing mathematicians, the area of mathematics in social life and the basic options that come with mathematics because period.

We shall start the initial semester with Egyptian mathematics. Written documents about ancient Egyptian mathematics and generally Egyptian history – I don’t mean the remains of archaeological works – are almost nonexistent. You will find two main reasons for this. The very first is that the ancient Egyptians wrote the writing on papyrus; The second reason may be the 3 big fires of the Alexandria libraries, the past of the fires happened during the conquest of Egypt by 641 Muslims, the written documents disappeared. Papyrus could be the leaves of a reddish, reed type plant growing in the Nile delta, typically 15-25 meters long and 30-50 inches wide. These leaves were used to write text as opposed to paper after cutting, joining, pressing and undergoing some simple operations. Words in western languages such as “Paper”, “papier” are produced from the term papyrus. The common lifespan of a papyrus is 300 years; 300 years later, it is flaky due to moisture, heat and similar reasons. Currently, two papyrus related to mathematics appear to possess been hidden under exceptional circumstances. The key sources of our understanding of Egyptian mathematics are those two papyri. The first of the papyrus is just a 6-meter long and 35-cm wide papyrus referred to as the Ahmes (or Rhind) papyrus. This papyrus, BC. You are a puree written in 2000s, BC. It is really a copy published by a “mathematician” named Ahmes in the 1650s. This papyrus was bought by the Irish antiquarian H. Rhind in the 1850s, now in the British museum. This papyrus is a book written to teach math. In the introduction part, following a few exercises given to show operations with fractional numbers, 87 questions get making use of their solutions. These are the kind of questions people can encounter in daily life, such as for example sharing account, interest calculation, or finding the area of some geometric shapes. That is just about our 8th grade mathematics. The 2nd papyrus, referred to as the Moscow papyrus and now in the Moscow museum, is also BC. It is a booklet written in the 1600s. This papyrus contains 25 questions. These questions are of the kind of questions in the Ahmes papyrus, except for the two. Are you aware that other two questions, one of them may be the calculation of the quantity and area of the surface of the sphere part cut by a plane. One other may be the question of finding the volume of a pyramid cut by way of a plane. Both questions were solved correctly. Both of these questions are accepted while the pinnacle of Egyptian mathematics. The Egyptians seen that the location of the circle was proportional to its diameter and found how many pi to be 4x (8/9) squared, ie 256/81 = 3.16. It is understood that Egyptian mathematics has remained only at that level for 2000 years and hasn’t made any significant progress.

B.C. 600s would be the years once the Persians started initially to dominate the middle east. B.C. By the 550s, Persians are the only rulers of the whole middle east, including Anatolia and Egypt. The Persians organize three trips to Greece between 500-480 BC; They captured Athens in 480, but burned it, a year later, in 479, Greeks expelled the Persians from Greece. This date BC. 479 could be the date that has been accepted as the start of Greek civilization. This date is the beginning of an extremely bright period in science, art and literature. Greek mathematics actually started sooner than this period. Two people, Tales (624-547 BC) and Pythagoras (569-475 BC), are regarded as being the daddy of Greek mathematics. Tales Milet (Aydın) was also born. It is known he went along to Egypt, stayed there for some time and learned geometry in Egypt. While in Egypt, it is described in books where he calculates the height of the great pyramid by measuring the length of the shadow of the fantastic pyramid, multiplying this number by the ratio of its length to along the present shadow. After returning to Tales Milet, he taught them geometry by forming friends around him to teach what he learned. It’s assumed that abstract proof predicated on reasoning, that will be not based on mathematics – experimental verification, entered into Tales. In addition, Tales is the one who is recognized as the very first philosopher in human history. He came to be on the island of Pythagoras Samos (Samos), another father of Greek mathematics. Pythagoras stayed with Tales for a time, went to Egypt following his advice, learned geometry there, visited Egyptian temples, learned religious information, and was taken fully to Babylon by capturing the Persians throughout the occupation of Egypt by the Persians. it’s known. During his 5 years in Babylon, he learned mathematics, music and religious information, and after returning to Samos, he created a college and tried to show individuals he gathered around. For political reasons, BC. He left 518 Samos, settled in southern Italy, in the town of Crotone, where he created a semi-mystical-semi-scientific, cult-like school. The senior folks of this school called “mathematics” live together and they are connected together with oath. The 2nd group contains students attending school. Pythagoras school is dependant on number cult. According for them, everything could be reduced to numbers; It has an unusually perfect harmony among numbers, and harmony is a reflection of the divine harmony. Known numbers for that day are integers indicating the plurality such as 1,2,3,…; and kes, ¾,… would be the fractional numbers that indicate the ratio of the part to the whole. The emergence of irrational numbers with the theorem referred to as the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the right sides of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse) put the Pythagorean school in a deep crisis. The discovery of irrational numbers is the first major crisis of mathematics. Many of the members of the Pythagorean school were massacred by way of a raid led by a big cyber named Cylon. Pythagoras saved his life, but after a couple of years he died. Pythagoras’thoughts, the Pythagorean school lived for several years under this or that name. As could be understood from these details, Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics are the cornerstone of Greek mathematics.

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